Common Terms               





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Disclaimer: I chose terms that are relevant and, or used frequently in crypto. This is not financial advice.

A Description

Agnostic Decentralized Platform:

Belief in all forms, systems of on the blockchain.


Artificial Intelligence. A computer capable of thinking, acting like a human or better than a human. Current technology relies on algorithms, software that builds up a memory through trial and error. This is nothing new. Over the decade the tech has made more breakthroughs thanks to faster processing power, data storage and efficiency. Despite the advancements it's still a long way from doing a competent job. Look at Google's copyright bots for a good example. It will do amazing things in the far future. Don't expect them to be taking all our jobs anytime soon. Ignore the hype, stick to the results.


Figure out the cost of an intangible asset over time. In our case we'll be going with a 1 year time frame. Is can also refer to repayment. So for example Zcash was premined. Until it passed it's Anterior, it's in the red. Ripple spent billions, possibly tens of billions of dollars to stay on top in the coin market. They have to pay that amount back to churn a profit. Keep this in mind when investing in companies. If they are always in the red, they will be dead. Maybe not today, but one day.

Angel Investors:

I'm going to make you a great deal. I'll pay you $10 million to make a flame thrower snow blower. Then when your product goes onto the stock market, I get my fixed cut, percent of the stocks. You keep paying me until the debt is cleared, plus I get a nice bonus. Try to only get one if you start up a company.


Short for anonymous. It's a great way to traverse the net, spread all kinds of wacky opinions without some ass hats coming after you personally. In this current era there's a conflict between privacy and data mining people's information.


This is the first price of the coin on the market. Sometimes they have a flash sale before launching, pre mined, or merged. I thought it was an appropriate term. The head of the snake, when it really begins it's value to the investor(s). Anterior is listed the first time a coin is on the market. It doesn't count presales.

Anonymous Coins:

Crypto currency's foundation is the equivalent of a Swiss bank account in your pocket. A code, a series of numbers and or letters that has your account address. Without this no one can track you. No one knows what you do with your money. The benefits is the removal of middlemen from transactions. The downside is being able to avoid the law, taxes entirely. Not all crypto companies are truly anonymous.


Application Programming Interface. API sets protocols for creating software. Think of it like those electrical outlet adapters. When you run out of socket space at home for your hardware. Otherwise you're stuck on those default two outlets.


Application Specific Integrated Circuit. PC hardware, many CPUs in a small box that allow people to mine bitcoins. More modern coins use the GPU, also known as mining rigs, which is 5+ cards. With that said a lot of coins in 2018 shifted back to ASIC mining. Unfortunately they exist to do one specific job over and over. Unlike GPUs their resale value is very low after the newest model arrives.

Autonomous Entity:

The same thing as DAO uses smart contracts to process work on the block chain. A method for running contracts without human involvement. The original version has been heavily criticized for being ineffective in the business world. The crypto version has a history of being hacked. The original term has to do with hallucinogens. Not a good foundation for the definition in any form. Still people in Ethereum, EOS insist it has potential.

B Description

Bazaar Tradition:

Permanently enclosed marketplace. Similar to the Persian markets of ancient times. When new markets emerge people look in all directions for terms they can adopt. I'm expecting there to be a ideogram term in 2019... June 13th, 2017. I overshot!


The digital ledger of crypto currency. The transactions are recorded chronologically. You will see this word often.

C Description


This is the most common financial system on Earth. It's core foundation is monetary values on products, services. It uses supply and demand economics. The flaws are profits above health of the people, environment. At it's core growth is everything. Something better will come along, decades, centuries? Until that time, Capitalism out performs all others for expedient progress, growing economies, companies.

Cayman Islands:

A tax haven for questionable business activity. This became the go to place for NEO and other companies. In China and most countries when crypto began it was illegal. I understand why they went there. One day these tax sanctuaries could be raided. If companies stay there long term, that's when I got my finger on my sell shares button. Money is not infinite. It can only be moved around. When it's concentrated in one area, especially for illegal activity it is not safe.


The chief of the company. They are responsible for making most of the major business decisions. A good CEO will grow a company's stock, value. It's their goal to benefit investors. Usually the board, the top. This can lead to questionable decisions as profits leap far ahead of ethics.

Close-End Fund:

It hands out a fixed number of non refundable shares. Not to meet the demands of investors. A collective method.

Cloud Mining:

You pay someone to mine crypto coins for you. This can be an individual or a large GPU/CPU center like Genesis Mining. Cloud mining from my own experience is the worst way to make money on the market. Yes, you avoid paying all hardware, electric costs. But the middleman fees are extremely high. You can make profit, but no where near the amount if you just bought the coins on an exchange. A minimum $5k investment is recommended to see a small return. They've been hacked in the past, due to poor security. Who puts all their coins on one wallet? Genesis Mining, and Nicehash, that's who.


Let's see if I can remember what school taught me decades ago. Communism is a form of government where everyone who can work, works. The system is entirely in charge of the money distribution. Ideally it is handed out equally. The flaw is it consolidates all the capital into a single branch. It's infamous for concentrating power into a small group of people, great for dictators. It's got the highest death toll of any modern government. Why does it keep popping up in discussions in Silicon Valley, even though it's mostly gone? Because it does have some really good ideas at it's core, if you disregard it's historical track record. Russia and China are no longer communist. Most countries have abandoned it.

Creative Commons:

Non profit for musicians, lawyers, artists. It was designed to bypass the dated copyright system. Companies that don't fit in the normal financial, corporate structure. You'll find this registration common for crypto companies.

Crowd Source Funding:

A gathering of people across the internet. To complete a project, by combing all the small donations into a massive fund. Kickstarter is a good example. The positive is it's not reliant on a marketing team, small group of investors who have very specified requirements. You answer to the people. It's negative is ambitions can outstrip what was raised. Founders can take the money and run. It's largely fueled by human emotion, lacks regulations. These types of funds have significantly higher rates of fraud. Not entirely without merit. Still take a great deal of caution.

Cube Satellite Network:

A few years ago NASA allowed the launch of mini satellites, the size of your hand. Eat that 4th grade! I said it would happen! Even though the teacher agreed with me... Ahem! These micro machines orbit the planet, allow for pirate radio, hacking, strengthening the current wireless network. Because they are much smaller, cheaper they have less issues in space, eventual reentry. The downside is their size makes them incredibly hard to destroy. If we ever got space junk, debris moving near the speed of a bullet. A scenario Elon Musk is planning to remedy with lasers, it would make future space travel risky. More companies will be using this technology to save money. The other reason is there is a near absolute weight limit to make a rocket that can break through the atmosphere. In short this technology is here to stay.

D Description


There is no central authority. No government, no CEO, no small group of investors calling the shots. It's community driven.

Decentralized Autonomous Organization:

DAO uses smart contracts to process work on the block chain. A method for running contracts without human interference.

Deflationary Currency:

A theoretical problem facing bitcoin. Eventually as the prices go down, from investors having more money than normal. People would spend less? ... This would cripple consumption in the economy. Personally I've never lived through a major deflation. Don't know now anyone that has. So I have not experienced the downside. I can definitely attest to my years of experiencing inflation. Which has many flaws. The modern world operates under debt and inflation economics.

Delegated Proof of Stake:

Shareholders have authority on who gets to control the ledger. What keeps track of everyone's money. It's designed for faster transactions, scalability. It keeps hackers from running up fees on the network. If you tried to transfer bitcoin in January 2017, you experienced 30-40% price hikes. Bitcoin is Proof of Work.

Distributed Certified Management:

A system that recognizes experts. DCM raises standards, according to their will.


How much of the market the coin occupies, how much it's used. Bitcoin for example has held over 50%. Most coins don't make up 1%. That's why BTC has become so valuable.

E Description

E Sports:

Termed in the video game tournament craze. It was to put games in the same popularity as traditional sports. While many have argued E Sports is an oxymoron, like military intelligence. You are using your mind far more than your body. Where sports is the opposite. A lot of marketing power was thrown behind it. To this day it's used for a variety of genres, with the lone exception being EVO, fighting games. You'll hear this term on occasion with crypto, games, and gambling events.


A company's overall profitability put in a percentage of it's total revenue. Equal to what was earned before depreciation, tax, amortization. Divided by total earnings, revenue. Such data points were created to give more depth to how the company performed financially.


Encodes data so only the person with the key, a lengthy password can access the information. If the encryption is really good, a super computer running to the heat death of the universe could not crack the code. In the case of cell phones the hardware can be tripped manually. In the same way bio metrics doesn't need an eyeball, hand of the required person. Just smashy smashy, or electrically fry that terminal.

End to End Blockchain Solutions:

The removal of steps, processes in the middle. This is done to decrease workload, and increase output in software. Basically optimization, finding shortcuts.


It has different terms in finance, investing, property. Generally it's your degree of ownership in stocks, assets in a company, your debt.


An arrangement for groups, to disperse the money for the key members.


Ethereum is a crypto currency that in 2017 was #2 to BTC in market dominance, and usage. People will get paid in Ether for mining, they can use it to trade. It's just Ethereum cut short, Eth is also used. Not to be confused with Ethereum Classic. The coin split into two entities when an agreement wasn't reached on how to handle the blockchain. Similar events have happened with Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Gold.


Similar to the stock market. A crypto exchange allows people to buy and sell coins. Most exchanges use bitcoin as the base that all currency is valued against. When you for example sell all your Dash coins. It will be converted to BTC. Then you can convert that into fiat. Other options like tether were introduced to match the dollar. Tether's purpose is eliminating the price fluctuations of BTC.

F Description

Fantasy Sports:

Pick your favorite football player, team, then bet how they handle the sports season. It's long term gambling. The winners walk away with large sums. However if you are right most of the time, you can still make more than what you put in. Many of the gambling coins try to include this market. Thanks to slow moving governments, operations like this are largely unregulated, making key investors a lot of money in 2017. In 2018 the party is over.


Paper currency. The Dollar, the Yen, the Euro. Crypto coins are digital. While people believe fiat is on the way out. I think digital will force fiat to be competitive. If it doesn't, yeah we're going full digital. A more likely future is paper surviving to account for the wide spread hacking flaws of digital.


Currently the fastest internet infrastructure on Earth. It allows packets of data to be sent at 100 gigabytes a second. That's a lot. Dial up is the slowest, DSL is double to triple, and cable is the second best choice. Steer clear of home satellite/dish network.

Forecasting Tool:

With the use of a S curve on a graph you can determine from 4 points of data if the stock/coin will gain or lose value. Another system is the use of fractals. While neither will predict the specifics. It will give you an idea if the market is going up, down, or holding. It refines your decision time for selling, or buying.


Another version of a non profit organization. It will donate funds to support it's operations. These can be hot beds for fraud, or a great source of philanthropy.

Fraction Reserve Banking:

There's a good movie on this. The moral of the movie was fractional banking is god damn dangerous! Let's say everyone in NY City decides to take all their money out of their bank accounts. Well they are out of luck. Because fractional only requires the bank to hold a small percent, 10-20%. On top of that the bank is taking your $90 of the $100 you put in, and investing it into other places. Like student loans! You may have done some math and said, "Hey, that can lead to bad things without some kind of support system. Accountability in results."

In the event of a run on the bank. The government, tax payer is responsible for covering the losses. That's you num nuts. This is why banks fear crypto. I'm certain in the future we'll get to see how all this settles.


Use math before spending your money. Said company will counter with language. You counter with peer review, results. They will often double down here with emotional appeals, comparisons, a free demo. Demand the data from a reputable source. Don't be afraid to walk away from the conversation, which is a glorified sales pitch. Best to lurk in the shadows, instead ask employees.

I'm also going to recommend a radical idea. Don't spend a lot of time researching a single company. You shouldn't need to spend more than an hour. This requires experience, more awareness of the overall market. Which should be your main focus. Eventually you can spot the difference between a pyramid scheme like Bitconnect and Ethereum. Companies also change with time. They may start out legit, become corrupt. Fraud is not the most common way companies fail. Incompetence is a more typical reason.


Investment in the combined capital of investors, securities. The chunk of money is used for a specific reason. As in I wouldn't mind if someone funded my company to make a giant laser cannon on the Moon. Just so I can say I have a laser cannon on the Moon, and laugh maniacally!

Futures Market:

Speculation of a stock/coin going up in value or down. Then making money when it hits said quota. Which is a fixed date. It's financial gambling, middlemen getting their included in the cut. It should be illegal. But it isn't. Who needs regulation, consequences? Bah!

G Description

Gross Margin:

The company's total revenue, minus the operational costs, divided by total sales, crunched into a percentage. Another data point to help you determine a company's financial performance.


I factor in several areas, performance, passel, growth, mission. Then see how it does over 6 months. I include additional data, anterior, strain, dominance to help give people a better understanding of the coin. All these factors are adjusted as the market matures. The grading started from June 24th, 2017. In my opinion this is when serious money, coding, progress began to show results. I marked this moment as 3rd generation. Some people will argue May 2017. When we hit 4th generation, the grading will change to include more traditional data points like revenue.


I calculate the percent of growth between the dates. This is done in 3 month intervals, and again in a 6 month for the grading of the coin. With a yearly review. For example Bitcoin grew over 400% since June. So any coin you bought in June that grew less than that, it was better left in Bitcoin.

H Description

Hash Rate:

This is the amount of processing power your GPU, CPU uses to mine a coin. It's measured in hash per second, kilo, mega, giga, and tera. Kilo is quick, normally a coin every few minutes to a few hours. Mega every hour to couple days. Giga and tera is when you need serious hardware. When in doubt, look at the coin value. A penny a coin normally mines fast. A dollar coin usually takes 1-2 days and $200 takes around a month. This is using a Nvidia GTX 1060 GPU, graphics card; 20 Mega Hashes. Software optimization can reduce times.

The higher the hash, the more power, time you need. Certain coins require certain hardware. You can't use a CPU to mine Komodo, you can't use a GPU to mine Bitcoin. In the case of CPU mining it's recommended to buy the latest ASIC Antminer. It's an array of CPUs stacked into a small, elongated box. If you have a solar roof, some sort of free electrical setup, this is the most profitable way.

Heterogeneous Byte Assets:

Operation of securities, dividends, bonds, and forecasting information. This can be exchanged, registered in the Bytom network.


Hold, also known as hodl. Long term investing. Microsoft was worth a lot when it peaked. But it was worth even more if you held it's stock for a decade or two. 99.9% of companies fail. But the ones that succeed will do so over the course of years to decades. For example, I bought voxel coin, and sold when it hit $0.70 cents. So far it looks like that was the right move. But I also sold my Bitshares at $0.70 cents. It went over $0.80 a few days later. /: As of mid 2018 it's $.35. Overall I made the right decision. Keep that 99.9% in the back of your mind whenever in a new market.

Holdings Limited:

A company that holds outstanding stock. To own shares of a company that doesn't produce anything. I think this applies to shell companies?

I Description


Initial Coin Offering. Crypto companies use this method for raising funding. The market never would have grown, gained so fast without it. Hands down the reason 3rd generation exists.


Often confused with gambling. Similar on the surface, but underneath investing is all about timing. It rewards those who are patient, experienced. Avoid the common pitfalls, emotional appeal, confirmation bias, echo chambers, faith. You want data, you want results, and the scientific method. You didn't invest to feel good, you did it to make money! MONEY! Then when you succeed by 2 fold to 10 fold. The gains will make it all worth it. Until you pay taxes...


Incorporated business can issue shares of a company to investors. This happened with the Zcash pre mine. Ripple locked up 70% of their coins, promising a decent chunk to holders. Inc must have meetings and record them. They are also responsible for twice the amount of taxes. A LLC is a more comment path companies go down. On the bright side incorporated are restricted on the number of owners.

Internet of Things:

Toasters, microwaves, your home alarm system. Anything that's connected to the internet, usually wifi. Such appliances, hardware can be accessed remotely, often with a cell phone. This technology is extremely dangerous! People have been locked out of their houses, had cable TV providers turn off their heater, even threatened by ransom ware. That's where a hacker demands you pay them money to get your control restored. Do Not Pay Ransom Ware! It's often automated, and the hackers don't have an incentive to help you. If they helped you, that would leak their location. Companies like Iota are tackling the security flaws. Wifi is very easy to hijack, thus the current dilemma. I believe we will shift from a data mining economy into a privacy, security economy. The companies that succeed here will be some of the best investments you'll ever make. Just don't expect this stuff to roll out any time soon. A lot more development is needed.


International Organization for Standardization. A non government, independent body of people. It's also an image standard optical. A file that's created on disc for games, software. When it's put into a DVD player it runs said software. Without it you would need to manually run the game. Often from a start file, exe.

J Description

January & July:

These are often the worst months for tech, retail sales in the USA. This carries over to all markets. In the past there have been plenty of exceptions, 2018 in crypto being one of them! January crashed towards the end of the month with February being the worst. Same for July with a bleed over into August being the worst month. Have some spare money set aside for buying on the dips. I got my coins in July, and I'm up a small fortune. Everyone was buying like crazy in June. I mostly stayed out. I waited patiently, pulled out in early January and it paid off greatly. Get a feel for the market's flow and you'll be one step ahead.

K Description


Know your customer. It seems like a simple concept, yet I've seen so many crash and burn. In the game industry I saw Perfect Dark 360 launch at $60, paired with a new console. They idiotically priced themselves out. It didn't help that the game was mediocre. So who buys over priced, bland goods? Very few. Very few people.

KONY 2012:

An event where a marketing group raised a lot of money to end a conflict in Africa. Further investigation revealed the so called war criminal they were going after was off the radar, removed. The founder of the charity group then went crazy, striped naked on the streets of California. Let's remember to check our emotions. Make your decisions on data, results. The YT animated video on it is hilarious. The take away is charities are a great place for fraud, and delusional maniacs.

L Description

Lightning Network:

Millions and one day billions of transactions per second! On par with current payment systems such as Paypal. Without this, crypto is vastly inferior to current digital payment systems. They also claim it will reduce the power cost. As of now the power consumption of miners. People who process the transactions has been steadily rising. It's to the point where we will be consuming far beyond the capacity of our utilities. In late 2018 the fees have gone down, but the difficulty in mining continues to climb. Salt on an open wound when you see the people who still run those facilities are making less and less every few months. 1/3 success?


Originally coined liberal. It's a system that says no to all, or almost all government intervention. No regulations, no taxes, complete priority for individual freedom. The idea that everyone is responsible for their own fate. A lot of the founders of crypto are Libertarians, and Anarcho Capitalists. AC's are a more extreme version of Libertarian. If you're curious you can look up Jeff Berwick who goes into detail what it's like.

Limited Partnership:

LP When two or more partners create a business that holds one or more of the partners liable. Liable for funding, the money that was initially invested. LP's can't have corporate owners.


It's when you can sell your shares without affecting the market. So if I sold 50 Mona coins, a small amount. It's not going to change it's price.


Limited liability corporation with no limit to the number of owners. Profit losses are passed onto owners, individuals. The bad news is having no requirement for recorded meetings. They can convene in private. Additionally it has benefits to paying less in taxes because of how losses are handled. Most companies in America use a LLC or LTD.


Privately owned corporations. That means they are responsible for the debt. BJs the retail store is privately owned, no stock. Where it's competitor Costco is on the stock market. One pays like crap, the other pays over $20 an hour. It's not to say LTDs are bad. If the owner knows what the are doing, doesn't want to get hijacked by a board of investors, marketing team. This is a better method. However long running companies with revenue over $10 million, avoiding the stock market and have a large staff. They rarely end well.

M Description


Video games, movies, comics, t-shirts. These are all markets. The crypto you bought is attached to a market. The companies that try to expand to multiple markets require vast income to cover the upkeep. Disney is a good example. They recently pulled out of video games to reduce costs. Then got back in by licensing out their properties to Capcom for Marvel vs. Capcom 3, and EA for Star Wars Battlefront. EA was not a good decision, costing EA a $3 billion dip in stocks. If Disney knew their markets, they'd know EA was a bad choice.


I've had experience working in Capitalism, Socialism and Marxism. I despise Marxism, I didn't get paid for 1 month of work! The one I was involved in was a worker co-op. The employees voted on all decisions. Who to hire, who to pay. It's a popularity contest. No central authority. A group governance. Half the group wanted to pay me, the other half didn't. I think I lost the vote by 51%? Even though the head of the project wanted me to get paid! They were very hostile to change, while work got done. It was very difficult for new hires (unless you're good at high school social clicks).

It was bad for risk taking, adapting. I won't name the crypto company that did this. But I will say they were against the coin grader in all forms. The reason they gave? "That's a lot of work." Ironically in the world of systems, Marxism is the least popular, least effective. That's not just one bad experience. You can find similar results in peer review, companies.


Computer hardware is used to process, render various tasks for the crypto markets. Originally this was how bitcoin came into existence. Miners are paid for lending their CPU, GPU power. With some coins they can even lend their hard drive space. People can hold copies of the ledger, the customer's account value across the globe. In time this will consolidate to data centers, render farms. Funded by big money. It guarantees stability, but makes it easier for governments to secure regulations. It will remain a battle between centralized hubs and individual's computers.


Each coin has at least one function they are trying to deliver. It could be security, transactions for most, or something weird like dental. Yes that exists. I look back and see if they're serious about their claim, if they are going to perform, become incompetent, or if they are fraudulent. What many don't know is incompetence is the most common way businesses fail. Well over 60% in most industries.

MIT License:

This originated from MIT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The users are given very limited permission to use, reuse their software. Typically this is for open source businesses, located in the USA.


When a company, coin climbs a ridiculous amount. Greater than 200% growth? The actual number isn't determined. It's an emotional response to a lot of money gained from a small investment. The peak of the investor roller coaster. Best time to collect monetary gains.

N Description


A Dutch business term, for experts working in facility management. What it's doing on crypto software is making me scratch my head.

Nominal Fees:

Price is smaller than what is normally expected. This also applies to cashing out. Coinbase can charge a fee on your transaction, lowering the amount you wished to put in.

Non Profit:

The goal is to not make a profit. Like a church. It's goal is to pull in enough money to remain operational. A charity of the sorts. They are tax exempt. People have used this to run some very scrupulous business practices. Non profits don't do good on markets. After all it's not their purpose. It's exists more as a way to give back, than to take. Unless they are fraudulent.

O Description

Open Source:

Software made by the community, for the community. Linux was and still is an open source operating system. It's free to download, free to alter. This doesn't mean open source is perfect. Because it's publicly supported, people can lose interest. Talent is less likely to work the long hours without a paycheck attached. Most developers resort to getting funding to continue. This even includes game emulators like the ZSNES. Open source is often not a good place to generate revenue for investors. Refer to Linux's attempt to enter the stock market for a fun read.

Open Governance:

Everyone has the right to access documents, information. There is no central authority. OG makes hostile takeovers impossible, near impossible. A common business foundation for Libertarians, crypto.


A large database of software and technology, cloud engineered systems and enterprise software products. Oracle is even older than Microsoft, dating back to 1977. In the past decade they have been active in bribes, patent trolling, and other illegal activity. To keep their brand alive. They have even attempted to sue Google. Like Motorola, a once progressive company that helped expand the market. Today they do what they can to stay relevant. Even though many businesses use their software, it's been slowly replaced by Microsoft, Adobe and others.
P Description

Parent & Child Nodes:

Parent is the core contract. Issued by the crypto company. A child is a change to the rules in the contract. We can then store all changes to the data. Like a rough draft and final version. This system makes adjustments to the work flow on a mathematically, coding.


A blue print on a mechanism, hardware, or process. I've even seen it on something as stupid as rounded edges for a phone. Patents can last 17-20 years. Once expired it goes into public domain. You can make a variation of it, improvement. Patent trolls are people who buy the patents dirt cheap, or file a far reaching design in hopes of setting up a trap. Due to the vast amount of submissions it can take months to find out if it's taken. But due to the legal definitions being vague, you may be infringing on a similar design, and not know it. The more complex the hardware, process, the more likely this will happen. Just thank the stars they expire.


A group of things, a large amount of it. It's easy to sell 1 coin. Try to sell 1,000,000. Not so easy. Some crypto companies adjust the volume of their coins to handle inflation. Thus the indeterminate number that will apply. I felt this was the best definition to use for grading volume. Otherwise passel is a fancier term for volume.

Pay Pal:

Technically a bank. But not recognized as one. They did not get involved in fractional reserve banking. Paypal is a digital service for handling money. It's accepted in thousands of retail locations. While it does have it's flaws, Paypal remains the dominate force in digital transactions.

PCI Certification:

Acceptance of credit cards requires this certification. It is designed to ensure they are secure, and transactions work. All cards use this!

Peer to Peer:

Interconnected nodes share data with each other, over a centralized administrative system. Bit Torrent would be P2P.


The foundation of coin grader. My job history goes all the way back to 2002. Technically 1999, Target. But that's retail. In 2002 I began work as a contract artist in the game industry. Most of the companies I worked for failed. This became a very normal occurrence as the industry shifted heavily into AAA game production. One thing I learned over and over. You can have your head in the clouds. But your feet better be on the ground! I understood the value of performance. If a company can't deliver on a product, service within a reasonable time frame. It has one destiny. Failure. Just like the game, Destiny! I know my jokes are awful.

Permission-less PDC:

No consensus is needed on the blockchain. To reach it's conclusion other methods can be used.

Platform as Service:

A form of cloud computing. The platform isn't required to have a remote infrastructure to maintain, to handle applications.

Pre Mined:

Before coins launch they can go through a flash sale to early investors. They may also raise funds by mining the coin before it hits market. This gives the owner(s) leverage. If it's premined too much however, it could spell doom for the coin. The lifespan for miners to make money is shorter, and more expensive to process from the start. If the owner(s) decide to take the majority of shares and cash out, the later investors will be holding pennies.

Price Action:

The direction on the chart. Is it showing signs of going up? Down? You can figure out price action by looking at the indicators. This is often the go to strategy for short term trading. For example bitcoin in 2017 was known for going up 2-3 days out of the week. 1-3 on hold and 1-2 on dip. With that knowledge you can determine in a growth cycle when it'll go down. Often it was Friday to Sunday when people spend money on the weekend.

Proof of Inheritance:

Coin holder is required to prove they are the owner. It's designed to keep out duplicates, hackers. Which is a problem in bitcoin. The ledger has to go back and process until it reaches a consensus. But it can be prone to packet floods, over and over, slowing down transaction speeds. As of 2018 with the lightning network most of the transaction fees have come back down to normal.

Proof of Importance:

NEM decides who gets to verify transactions. Similar to proof of stake. Unlike PoS the richest person doesn't get the highest reward. It's also based on quality of your transactions, activity. The problems with this is owners of coins can null out, lower value. If you use an exchange this won't affect your score. It's designed to mostly handle the large investments. For me I decided to avoid any currency that has that kind of authority. Somewhat more similar to a traditional bank than a crypto. My fears came true when they were 'hacked.' NEM deleted the stolen coins from their exchange, causing it's volume to decrease and value to go up. Most theft is an inside job. Keep that in the back of your mind as an investor.

Proof of Stake:

The current method of 2017 for tackling blockchain work. It also addresses the double spending problem. It pushes for higher network security, and strengthening incentives to stay with the coin for a longer period of time. The higher the amount of money the validator put in. The higher they have a chance of solving the block, getting paid. Basically rich get richer. It uses far less mining resources, electricity. No new coins can be generated or mined. Finally it reduces mining cartels. Locations that have the most amount of computers, hardware on the network. This prevents a country, server farm from monopolizing. The downside is PoS can destroy your stake. Casper a system invented by Ethereum hopes to address this and more. In 2018 PoS has under performed. It may die in 3rd generation.

Proof of Work:

People who use their CPUs, GPUs, and or hard drives to process digital work. After they hit a quota, usually 1 crypto coin. They get paid in said coin. If they gather enough of these, they can cash them out for real money or hold onto them. Some coins can be mined in minutes, Sia back during launch. Other coins can take months, Ethereum. To speed up the process miners buy more GPUs, more CPUs, more hardware. PoW was the original payment system for crypto, using CPUs. Over 2017 to 2018 it's shifted to GPU, back to Ant Miners.

Public Limited Company:

Limited liability company. A common business structure in the UK. Different business terms often intersect, have the same results as terms in other countries. Why not then lump them into universal words? Because there are minor variations. This has to do with how each country's constitution handles business law.

Pump and Dump:

Investors putting large quantities of money from one source, or multiple. They focus on a specific company, coin. All in an attempt to raise coin value. This effect can cause people to believe in potential that isn't really there. Monkey see, monkey do. As people become convinced emotionally. They jump in and the value soars. Once it climbs the key people pumping, dump their shares. They make a small or substantial profit. Then leave the people who got in later with all the losses. Raiblocks, now known as Nano is a great example. 10,000% climb over the course of a few months is obscene.

Q Description

Quantum Computers:

PCs that have the ability to make 0 and 1. On and off, positive, negative. Quantum, Qbits allows for both to be possible at the same time. It allows for possibilities on par with human thought. In theory it could even crack encryption. More research is needed. Companies like Dwave are leading the forefront of what will be possible. There will always be an arms race to make PCs faster, more capable. Several researchers have argued such breakthroughs are required to attain AI.

R Description

Real Time Gross Settlement:

Special transactions, securities are transferred from one bank to another.

Render Farms:

A lot of computers, numbering in the hundreds to thousands. These farms are used to process data such as computer generated images. Hollywood is known for using them for CGI. The sciences also uses them to crunch complex data, simulations. Normally they are stationed locally in one area. It allows for parallel processing that would bottleneck if done across different hardware. Without dedicated processing it would take decades, to make a 2 hour movie on a single PC. Every time computer hardware leaps, the amount needed for such detail go down. One day render farms may cease to exist.

R&D GmbH:

Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung. A limited liability, research and development business. Shareholders liability is limited to the amount they put in. It's similar to LTD.


Profits gained after x amount of time. This is usually measured in quarters (every 3 months), bi yearly and yearly. Loss is included from returns of products, taxes, deductions, sales.
S Description


Network's ability to handle growth. Bitcoin has rising fees, so it has poor scale. At least for the time being. Overtime we want it to handle the growth, to scale with demand.

Segregated Witness:

Also known as Segwit. Designed to prevent the hacker from adjusting code. So $10 doesn't become $10,000. Segwit looks at the code and comes to a proper conclusion. Imagine a postal worker reading the mail and the person wrote, Illinois. The postal worker can assume 3 LLL's or assume ILL. Segwit would also be counted as a fraction of it's real size on the processes, making it less hardware intensive.


A form of law in the Cayman Islands for businesses. Special economic zone company. The market is still very new, and the blockchain is not recognized as currency in most countries. To get around tax, fiat laws that would prevent competition, they had to set up their business in countries that had more expansive freedoms.

Silicon Valley:

It's located in the San Fran bay area, California. Here you can find Adobe, Apple, Google, almost every single tech giant. With other software leads located in Redmond Washington, and Austin Texas. This portion of land has so much wealth, it makes CA the 6th largest economy in the world. When I was investor hunting for my company I went to Wall Street. No luck there. Then I went to Silicon Valley. The money was over flowing. Mostly into the cell phone apps market, 2012-2015. It was still a great place to learn. Even though I pulled in funding elsewhere. (I didn't rob a bank) I saw thousands of start ups begin here. Their role in the future of tech remains cemented. Beware though, they have pie in the sky delusions to match their progress. With great money comes many mistakes.

Smart Contracts:

These are contracts handled by computer software, algorithms. Normally smart contracts are simple forms. The design is to fix minor issues quickly. Something that could be done by a person. Instead a machine will do just as good, often faster. This is to remove third parties from transactions, allowing less fees to be accrued.


Collective ownership of business, infrastructure, industry. No private control. The boss hands over their ownership to the employees. Most first world governments have some variation democratic socialism. This applies to retirement, healthcare, military, unemployment, food stamps, and so on. In this case a fraction of all money earned through work, taxes goes into a pot that is distributed to said services.

Traditional socialism remove all authority of private ownership. Like communism, it consolidates all distribution of wealth to a single branch. It's supposed to be the people, but ends up in the hands of a dictator, small group. Venezuela is pure socialism. The more successful versions systems are hybrids that lean hard into capitalism. I did have a chance to work in this European democratic socialism. Aside from the higher taxes, the pay was comparable to most first world jobs. The term itself may have changed over the years, since it's still mostly a version of capitalism.


I use this to describe the type of structure the company uses. It could be an Inc, LTD, corporate governance. Corporations are known for having CEOs, founders, angel investors. Like a virus you want your pick to spread across the globe. Infect as many people as possible with it's ideas. A strain that can't spread, can still survive locally, like Zika. So strain is company type. Hopefully your pick is not like Anthrax. It didn't have a good lifespan. That joke landed me on 20 different watch lists.


Your share, fraction of ownership in the company. You could say the crypto coins are a new form of the traditional stock market. Hopefully we don't see people selling tulips on there.

Swing Trading:

You look for quick movement in the price, put money in before it goes up, then sell after it climbs. A very popular method for trading bots, which can react, process faster than a human. When it works, the person running the bot never loses money. However, that was in theory. Usually swing trades keep you from making major gains. Incrementalism.

Swiss Bank:

If you have one of these. You are probably rich. It's origins are from victims of the holocaust. The modern version of the Swiss bank account is used by people across the planet to hide their money. To avoid paying taxes. Thanks to crypto we have that same feature with a smaller barrier to entry.

T Description


Blockchain free crypto currencies. There must be two parent transactions, instead of the default one. This flow allows for faster, more secure transactions. Rather than a assembly line, a straight forward set of paths. Transactions can skip ahead in the cue. Like those evil line cutters at theme parks!

Arguments have surfaced that tangle has a flaw where duplicates can be created in the chain, then a hacker could cash out on the clone while the original purchase is still in cue. For now that scenario has not surfaced. I have personally seen my coins x100 on tangle from the line skip. But the two parent system corrected it and my amount went back down. I was very sad.

Talent Management:

A circular process to handle the scouting, acquisition, placement of talent. Then manage their careers, doing what they can to retain them.

Time Standard Transactions:

Designed to reduce costs in processing claims, and other information in the medical field.


A sign, word, brand. Some sort of design used to identity a company. The arches of McDonalds, the castle for Disney, the word Capcom for Capcom. The problem with trademarks is a required financial upkeep. Registered with a government. It operates under a defend it or lose it clause. If people use the word Capcom to describe another game company, Capcom is required to sue, to protect their ownership. If Capcom lets it slide, they will lose the trademark. This is why Apple sued an apple store over the name, Apple. It's as stupid as it sounds. Welcome to Earth.
When I investigate crypto companies I ask if they have registered patents, trade marks, copyrights. Then I look them up in the records department for verification. Good way of weeding out the liars. Be careful. It could just be lost in paperwork. Governments still need to modernize for the digital world.

U Description

Under Valued:

You will hear this term a lot in your life. Little is needed to explain what this is. People believe for reasons said product/service, company is worth more than it's current status. This can be a good way of spotting potential gains off unknowns. My jokes are under valued. /nudge

V Description


Before you buy any coin you should look for it's value. Did you buy it because you think collecting people's private data, selling said data companies is the future? Do you believe the opposite? An economy where privacy and security is everything.

Venture Capital:

Money raised by seeking seeds, rounds of funding. This is raised privately, not publicly.

W Description

Wall Street:

A large reason the market has grown so much is from Wall Street investments. Despite being openly hostile like JP Dumb Dumb, they soon changed their tune and started pouring into the market. Then went back to bashing crypto.

Their pumps will over value coins, leaving you with a bad investment long term. Wall Street makes money offsetting the losses on other people. Never forget, as much of a boon as they are, they are also the same idiots who sank the world economy in 2008. Learn from what formulas, methods worked for Wall Street, and you'll be doing better than most. Just make sure it's legal, or cheat. That's up to law enforcement.

Wash Trading:

The trader is both buying and selling securities. This is why I'm wear of Token based coins. To manipulate the market price up, down, or keep it flat. Since down and flat cost money. It's usually used to boost stock, crypto prices. In the case of crypto this can be Fcoin's fake volume. This occured in March 2019 to May 2019. Bitmex was also resposnible using derrivatives to mask the volume. How was this spotted? When lower activity exchanges are trading volume that far exceeds what should be available on the market within a short time frame, 24 hours. In this instance these two 'companies' were trading as much as 30% bitcoin in a single day. Once the real value is high enough. The offenders sell during the price climbing or at the end; exiting with a massive profit, leaving the holders with IOUs. You see. They were never selling real stocks, coins. It was all fake volume.

X Description


A common moniker for the porn industry. Yes they are just as interested in the crypto market just like everyone else. If you see X's, or even a single X in the company name. It's probably related to said industry.

Y Description

Yearly Report:

From June 2018 I will begin a yearly report of the top 84 performing crypto companies. Why 84? Because I feel 80 is a solid cut off point for the current market. I added 4 more in to be generous, it has nothing to do with spacing. /wink This report will exist to tell you if your investment did anything in that time span. I will factor in scope, size, structure of the company's product/service. I'm certain not to make many friends from these results. But this is coin grader, not hand holder simulator!


The entire amount of the product, shares, stocks.
Z Description


To attain enlightenment. Which is something I hope this accomplishes as people come here to learn or laugh at my shitty jokes.